Two days before the D-Day landings on Normandy, the eternal city of Rome was liberated by the 5th Army.
All images from the Collection of The National WWII Museum.
Monk Enjoys Wine and Nature, 1904
Reed arrows from an 18th century Mughal Dynasty archer.
Considering the interest in archers like Katniss, Hawkeye and Merida, this case has become much more popular over the last few years.
Have you ever wondered what you would do to protect your family and farm in the case of nuclear disaster? Wonder no longer, fair citizens! The University of Idaho’s College of Agriculture has created this handy pamphlet just for this occasion.
"Where would be the safest place to go in your home or on your farm in event of natural or nuclear disaster?
This is a question most of us have asked ourselves as international relations blow hot and cold. Uneasily, we wonder just what we would do in the event of nuclear emergency. The destructive power of nuclear weapons has given many people a feeling of hopelessness. This feeling among Idahoans is unnecessary when we consider the potential for survival of our population. It has been determined that the majority of our rural population could survive nuclear attack and return to productive living if every family would plan to use to best advantage that which is already on the farm or in the home.”
This 1964 pamphlet brought to you by the University of Idaho Extension and Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station Publications Collection
Lioness cub mascot ready for parade with Free French metropolitan and Colonial troops and officers, Bastille Day (July 14) 1944, Siena, Italy.
Astrolabe of ‘Umar ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali ibn Rasul al–Muzaffari. 13th century.
Currently on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Captain Albert Ball (1896 - 1917) was Britain’s highest scoring profile fighter pilot during World War One.
Ball, who was born in Nottingham, enlisted with the British Army upon the outbreak of the war in August 1914, receiving a commission into the Sherwood Foresters. In time he sought and received a transfer to the Royal Flying Corps.
Rapidly proving himself a natural fighter pilot — invariably flying French Nieuports, which he constantly tweaked in seek of improved manoeuvrabilty — Ball, unlike many of his British colleagues, gained widespread public renown for his achievements in the air war.
In general the British authorities were less active in putting their aces to useful propaganda use than either their allies or the German government. Ball was an exception. His penchant for attacking from below (with machine gun tilted upwards) was dangerous, but remarkably successful, giving Ball a dashing reputation.
During the course of his 44 victories — generally achieved while flying alone, his preferred mode of operation — Ball was awarded the MC, DSO and Bar. Following his death on patrol on 7 May 1917 shortly before his twenty-first birthday (a dogfight in which Arthur Rhys Davids was fortunate enough to emerge a survivor), he was also the posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross. [ x ]
The Terror of the Hashashin,
In the 11th century a Nazari missionary named Hassan-i Sabbah began a small community of worshipers in the mountains of Northern Persia. A follower of a Shia Islamic group called the Isma’li, Sabbah was a very charismatic leader who organized a very large movement in a very short period of time. To accommodate his followers his movement occupied the fortress of Alamut. After a few decades, his followers occupied dozens of fortresses in Northern Iran.
Immediately Sabbah’s movement fell under assault as regional powers such as the Persians, the Fatimid Empire, and later the Crusaders saw them as heretics who constituted a political and military threat. As a result, Sabbah made intense training in warfare and combat a centerpiece of his religious teachings. His followers were trained to be elite soldiers and religious fanatics. Despite the militaristic flavor of his movement, Sabbah knew that a well orchestrated assassination or the proper application of intimidation could achieve much more than military power.
To complement his warriors, Sabbah founded the Order of Assassins, also known as the Hashashin because they often imbibed in the drug hashish. The assassins were required to be young, experts in hand to hand combat, religious fanatics, and also cold, calculating, and intelligent.
Over the next two decades the Hashashin were the most feared assassins in the Middle East, Central Asia, and perhaps the known world. Targets were typically powerful men such as political leaders, generals, religious leaders, and Crusaders. One famous victim was the famed Egyptian Muslim leader named Saladin. Saladin survived two attempts on his life by the Hashashin. Throughout the rest of his life Saladin lived in terror and paranoia. In 1192 and Italian knight and nobleman named Conrad of Montferrat was elected as King of Jerusalem. Two days later he was stabbed to death by two Hashashin dressed as Christian monks. Most suspected that his rival, Richard the Lionheart, had hired the Hashashin to commit the deed. Another famous victim was Prince Edward Longshanks, future King of England featured in the film “Braveheart”. Prince Edward was badly wounded and forced to return home. Even the mere threat of murder by the Hashashin was enough to intimidate rulers to do their bidding. When the Seljuk Sultan Sanjar attempted to invade Hashashin territory, he awoke one morning to find a dagger with a threatening note stuck in his pillow. He then called off the invasion.
The terror of the Hashashin spread far and wide. Then in the 13th century the Hashashin messed with someone who was far worse than they. In 1253 the Hashashin attempted to assasinate Mongke Khan, the Fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. Needless to say, the Mongols were not the sort to be intimidated, even by the feared Hashashin. Without pause the Mongols surrounded and stormed their many fortresses, ruthlessly slaughtering all Hashashin without mercy. In 1256 they destroyed the fortress of Alamut, the last bastion of the Hashashin. Those who survived the Mongol’s fury were tortured and beheaded, including the order’s last grandmaster Rukn al-Din Khurshah.
The hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera, Egypt.
The first hypostyle hall within the Temple of Hathor contains sandstone columns with Hathor head capitals. This hall was built during the Ptolemaic period, and was later decorated during the Roman period. The name of Roman emperor Claudius appears on the columns, and Nero on the walls.
Gay Robins (in The Art of Ancient Egypt, page 231) discusses the decoration of the columns themselves:
The columns display the three fields into which temple decoration was divided. At the bottom are three registers of emblematic groups. A horizontal band of text divides them from the main area showing ritual interactions between the king and deities. This is separated by another band of text from further registers of emblematic figures at the top.
Photos taken by Kyera Giannini, via the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World.
Justus Susterman. Detail from Portrait of a Medici Princess, Margherita di Cosimo II, 17th Century.
June 8th 793: Viking invasion of England begins
On this day in 793, Vikings raided the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, thus beginning the Scandinavian invasion of England. The abbey was a famous centre of learning across the continent, and many of the resident monks were killed by the Vikings and the abbey’s treasures were taken. The invasion shocked the Christian West and alerted Europe to the Viking threat; many consider it the beginning of the Viking Age.
“Never before has such an atrocity been seen”
- Alcuin of York, 793
Bobby Kennedy campaigns in Indianapolis during May of 1968, with various aides and friends.
studio ghibli + water